The Japan Times
April 24, 2002
The Washington Post

Neanderthals were just like us - violent but caring: researchers

WASHINGTON - Neanderthals dissatisfied with their colleagues' behavior apparently dealt with their anger in much the same way as modern humans do. They were quite willing to bash enemies over the head, and quite adept at seeking out the best available weapon for the job.

In a new analysis released Monday, anthropologists suggested that the hole in the head of a young adult Neanderthal who died about 36,000 years ago, near what is now the village of St. Cesaire, in southwestern France, was probably made by someone who sliced open the skull with a machete-like knife or sword. Equally important, the victim got enough help from relatives and friends to survive the experience.

"Aggression just forms part of human behavior," said Christoph Zollikofer of the University of Zurich, leader of the team of researchers from France and Switzerland who examined the skull. Humans "need reconciliation and affection as well, and the experience here suggests a broad spectrum of behaviors."

The St. Cesaire site, discovered in 1979, is celebrated because it dates from the "transitional" period when Neanderthals, masters of the European Ice Age, were being displaced by anatomically modern immigrants from Africa, either by assimilation or extermination.

Zollikofer said the team was doing a computer-assisted reconstruction of the St. Cesaire skull when it noticed a 4-cm-long scar in the bone on the top right side.

The position of the cut all but ruled out an accidental fall, while the shape of the wound and the fact that the rest of the skull was neither fractured nor misshapen indicated a slashing or hacking motion with a sharp, blade-like tool or weapon, rather than a club or ax.

"There was almost certainly a flint cutting edge, and it was hafted onto a wooden handle," said Neanderthal specialist Erik Trinkaus of Washington University in St. Louis, commenting on Monday's announcement. "What you had was a large machete-like implement, except that we don't have the wood."

Zollikofer said scarring of the bone showed that the victim survived the attack. Had the wound been fatal, the bone would not have regenerated, and scientists could not have distinguished the head trauma from weather or site damage.

"It was a serious wound, in that it would have bled pretty seriously," Trinkaus said. "Even though there was no pushing of bone down into the brain case, it would have hurt like hell."

And survival without infection would have meant that other members of the community would have had to tend to the victim. Earlier research by Trinkaus and others has shown that Neanderthals cared for sick and infirmed people, and the latest findings simply close the loop, Zollikofer said.

Violence "is natural behavior among social primates," Zollikofer said. "The biggest difference between apes and hominids (humans and human ancestors) is the involvement of tools."

And this, Trinkaus added, makes violent encounters much more dangerous. "As weaponry increased in sophistication, the risk of serious injury went up," he said. "If all you have is your fist, the injury isn't that bad."

Even though early modern humans had appeared in Europe by the time of the Neanderthals' St. Cesaire habitation, there is no evidence they were in the area at that moment, and Zollikofer said it was unlikely the young Neanderthal had been hurt in some form of interspecies war.

Instead, domestic violence, then as now, was the most likely cause: "You encounter your group members each day," Zollikofer said. "And we think that with the very low population density then, you were highly unlikely to meet somebody else."

Still, he added, "almost anything is possible." A weapon of the type that inflicted the wound to the young Neanderthal was not found at St. Cesaire, but Trinkaus said Neanderthals had the technology to accomplish the job, as do modern humans.

A COMPUTER-ASSISTED RECONSTRUCTION of a Neanderthal skull from St. Cesaire, France, shows that the young adult suffered a blow to the head, probably from a machetelike knife or sword, in an act of violence. AP PHOTO/NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES