Nauruan Swadesh List
Tri-Institutional Pacific Program
Yale University



Tri-Institutional Pacific Program
Department of Anthropology
Yale University

Language: Nauruan
Location: 26 miles South of the Equator & 163 East
Recorder: Tamaiti Willie Star (handwritten: [received from Pittman])
Date: 21st of March, 1954

Section 1. Basic Vocabulary
(entire Swadesh test list)

The most commonly used simple equivalent for each test item should be given. Disregard specialized forms and give a single word or element rather than a phrase. Where a choice is necessary, give a term with a broader meaning than that of the test item rather than one with a narrower meaning. If it is impossible to translate the test item, omit it. In doubtful cases a note as to the meaning or use of the term would be appreciated. The entries are arranged roughly in semantic groupings.

1.handebe
2.left (hand)ebe edamau
3.right (hand)ebe edamaram
4.legenana
5.footenana
6.to walkdugidugo
7.road (trail, path)emedena
8.to cometuko
9.to turn (change one's direction)ewido
10.swimeaw
11.to wash (not body parts, if different)gabur
12.to wipeomag
13.to rubmwinumwin
14.dirtymwarere
15.dustebadetsi
16.skin (human)witin
17.back (person's)erowin
18.bellyiye
19.boneero
20.guts, visceraerierin
21.liveraen
22.heartidiruko
23.to know (facts)tsied
24.to thinkkamarar
25.to fearmiow
26.bloodera
27.headitub
28.neckteren
29.hair (esp. of head)iret-itub
30.nose (his)bodin (his)
31.breatheonano
32.smellway (y as you)
33.mouthnganakwan
34.tooth (esp. front rather than molar)imwi
35.tongueeo
36.to laughidodo
37.to cry (weep)iong
38.to vomitean-oano
39.to spitkwurao
40.to eatyeyi
41.to cooktsim
42.to drinkren
43.to bitekamwit
44.to suck (as breast)kimwamwai
45.earetanung
46.to hearkayot
47.eyeeme
48.to seeed
49.to sleepmiyimiy
50.to lie (on side)mekwor
51.to sitmegeda
52.to standoeyo
53.personengame
54.man (male human)eman
55.woman (not 'wife')en
56.child (young person, rather than offspring)eoning
57.husbandagen
58.wifeagen
59.motherinen
60.fatheretongin
61.brotheredin-emwan
62.sisteredin-en
63.nameeg
64.to saypan
65.ropedorop
66.to tie (as knot, rather than 'tie up')kwor
67.to sewyir, tsir
68.clothingdedegai
69.to hunt (game)ukwe
70.to shoot (bow or gun)gato
71.to stab (or stick)ebu
72.to hit (esp. with fist)idauwei
73.to fight (esp. humans)ake
74.to killabi
75.to dieima
76.to livetsimor
77.to scratch (as with fingernails, to relieve itch)oror
78.to cut (as with knife)tow
79.stick (of wood)edubwike
80.to splitdubwangai
81.sharp (as knife)eokong
82.dull (as knife)egomwin
83.to workmagur
84.to play (as games)karamwen
85.to singriang
86.to danceruwo
87.to swelloPe
88.to squeezeyima
89.to hold (in hand)babwiyi
90.to digiri
91.to givetotow
92.to pullurure
93.to pushyouw
94.to throw (esp. stone)orai
95.to fall (drop, rather than topple)pudu
96.dogrobar
97.birdimin-oeta
98.eggepaitomo
99.feather (larger one, rather than down)ewewen
100.wingben
101.to flyoeta
102.animalinim-gokoro
103.meat (flesh)duwen
104.fat (organic substance)epat
105.tailiwin
106.snakeslange (tsirange)
107.worm (esp. earthworm)emwe
108.louseiwi
109.fishyuw
110.treeimin ero
111.rotten (as log)enamwamwae
112.leafren
113.bark (of tree)witin
114.rootawaran
115.seedebaba
116.flowerekauwe
117.berry (or fruit)kwan
118.grassibugibugi
119.earth (soil)emwarere
120.stone (pebble)epe (enge)
121.sanderauro
122.waterebok
123.freezeegaramwamwe
124.ice-
125.to flowgoruro
126.to floatpi
127.sea (ocean)iyited
128.saltebarayited
129.lake-
130.riverekaw
131.mountainetowedudu
132.woods-
133.skyituga
134.sunekwan
135.staredetong
136.clouddenang
137.fog-
138.to rained oeron
139.snow-
140.windengin
141.to blow (of wind)yiw
142.warm (of weather)enemong
143.cold (of weather)egaramwamwe
144.dry (substance)emong
145.wetriare
146.smoothramae
147.heavyroe
148.firee
149.to burn (intrans.)ong
150.smoke (of fire)badedi
151.ashesemarangata
152.blacktangtang
153.whiteburbur
154.redmwirara
155.yellowbababo
156.greenaditur
157.smallkadudu
158.bigouwak
159.shortebo
160.longrakwo
161.thingerager
162.thickmey
163.narroworoeo
164.wideereab
165.straightor
166.oldobwe
167.newtsimetsiw
168.goodomo
169.bad (deletrious, unsuitable)baka
170.right (correct)eimwi
171.nightobum
172.day (opp. of night, rather than time measure)iao
173.yeareobwani
174.when?ngato
175.atean
176.inyan
177.hereine
178.thereina
179.thisbitune
180.thatbita
181.nearturen
182.fargoeow
183.where?i? inga?
184.Ia
185.thou, youawe
186.heei
187.we (exclusive)ama
187.we (inclusive).ada
188.yeamie
189.theyura
190.what?ekegen
191.who?iyegen
192.otherbita ion
193.someinon
194.manyebak
195.fewvad
196.all (of a number)memag
197.andme
198.with (accompanying)epoa
199.becausebwe dogin
200.iftsin ya
201.howoten
202.noteo
203.to countodu
204.oneaikwen
205.twoaro
206.threeayu
207.fouraeoq
208.fiveayimo
209.sixango
210.sevenaeu
211.eightaoyu
212.nineado
213.tenata
214.twentyanarama
215.hundredaibu

Section 3. General Vocabulary

1.bodydorabat
2.fat (adjective)duweduw
3.armebe
4.elbowiburenibe
5.fingeritsinibe
6.nail (finger or toe)ikwinibe (or) ikwinana
7.toeitsinana
8.anklereren iwin
9.kneeiburenana
10.thighwekangan
11.buttocksededi
12.anusmet ededi
13.excrementibwiya
14.defecateeo bwibwiya
15.penisiny
16.urineekabebe
17.to urinateokabebe
18.vaginaiduw
19.to copulate (humans)meir
20.breastikimama
21.milk (esp. human)ikimama
22.shouldereanukwe
23.chestbaran
24.ribbarugirugin
25.lungsetsiw
26.intestinesiburio
27.veinewa
28.stomachebwer
29.hungrymetur
30.thirstybong
31.to swalloworareow
32.full (after eating)marang
33.to belchoro
34.to coughbobo
35.bitterobaoadin
36.souremangimang
37.sweeteta
38.lipebate
39.spittleeberere
40.throatanorin
41.cheekanemen
42.facemen
43.chinanabaran
44.beardebar
45.eyebrowsewet eme
46.tear (from crying)erenime
47.foreheadraman
48.baldmaradun
49.brainekaburor
50.alivetsimor
51.blindeo edirongin
52.deafobong iyungin
53.sleepyeninedu
54.dreammi
55.to awake (intrans.)torer
56.to forgetmeyion
57.crazydairinaiya
58.angeregirow
59.to be angryegirow
60.to quarrelake
61.wareake
62.to beateira
63.painmaga
64.swollenoPe
65.itchoror
66.sickarag
67.to moanmwiynga
68.to cry out (shout, moan)daredar
69.to speakdorer
70.to callekekur
71.to askkido
72.voiceaen
73.lie (falsehood)baite
74.to rungoro
75.to sweateamong
76.fastapar
77.to jump (esp. up)ri
78.to gonuaw
79.to go downrodu
80.to go inmetu
81.to go outmeta
82.to go uproga
83.to returnredo
84.alohaebao
85.to bringorean
86.to carryobu*
87.to dragurure
88.to puttotu
89.to buryiriedu
90.hole (esp. in ground)iyub
91.to doriring
92.to showomeata
93.to desireteng
94.to wantteng
95.to chooseiy
96.to buyrouw, tuwabei
97.to stealtorere
98.to losegoro
99.to look for (seek, not watch for)onani, rarouw
100.to findonani
101.to turn overiwid
102.to open (something)baida
103.full (not empty)okwen
104.to cleanodereder
105.to break (esp. as a stick)tsiba
106.to pound (as poi)ogoge
107.to boil (intrans.)otar
108.to string (as leis)yir
109.to twist (trans.)mwad
110.to braid (as rope)id
111.to plait (as mat)ee
112.mat (for house floor or sleeping)itubwer
113.to weave (as cloth)ee
114.to wrap upiyim
115.sarong-
116.hatdobaranimedang
117.pillowete
118.houseewag
119.roofanim
120.doormet-ewak
121.walleoror
122.fenceeoror
123.knifedebitsi
124.adzeta
125.swordipudutubwin
126.spearekado
127.bow (weapon)dobonara
128.boatdobot
129.to sink (intrans.)rengoduyow
130.to drown (intrans.)paroe
131.deepokab
132.wave (esp. breaker, surf)mwinangan
133.harbor (or channel, pass)-
134.shore (esp. ocean side, rather than lagoon side)ibu
135.island (not 'land')eb
136.valleyepang
137.rock (or boulder; not cliff)epe
138.mudebaubo
139.garden (or garden plot)etangin-kyeo
140.to plantoyon
141.plant (n.)inin-ero
142.trunk (of tree)badon
143.branchran
144.thorneokong
145.to bear (child)obu
146.boy (young male, not 'son')eoning-in-emwan
147.girl (young female, not 'daughter')eoning-in-en
148.chief-
149.slave (or outcast)itsiyora
150.tabooebwigaga, ebwi
151.soulanin
152.god (not image or carving)eani (or) aduwen
153.image (representation)iyor in ani
154.ancientmewak
155.shadowanin (or) aturin
156.moonmaraman
157.thunderdebao
158.lightningeitsin
159.deweo
160.hotkiniyow
161.hardenaoeoe
162.strongoaio
163.softmeroro
164.rotten (as fruit)mwamwitsi
165.variegated (color)-
166.fragrantboyarara
167.beautifulomodangidang
168.morningyoran
169.eveningemero
170.todayngabumine
171.nowngage
172.tomorrowyaran
173.yesterdayngago nane*
174.thenngagan
175.buffalo-
176.pigikumo
177.fowldomo
178.to hatchbao
179.nest (as bird's)eika
180.ratikumododo
181.fur-
182.spiderareow
183.antemwaro
184.mosquitodemaninar
185.fly (the insect)engam
186.butterflyiyewaeoe
187.sharkebawo
188.fin (esp. dorsal) fin
189.eeleamwit
190.octopusdogiga
191.gold-
192.silver-
193.middleyugaga
194.above (not directional)ituga
195.upward (adverbial directive)ada ituga
196.below (not directional)iyong
197.downward (adverbial directive)adu iyong
198.behindiruwin
199.ocean (directional)iyited
200.direction towards speaker-
201.how much?oten ngaben?
202.how many?oten ebakin?
203.nothingekeow
204.thirtyanimo
205.fortyama
206.fiftyaiyma
207.sixtyangoma
208.seventyaemo
209.eightyaoyomo
210.ninetyadumwa (aduma)
211.the-
212.causative prefix-

Section 4. Specialized Vocabulary

1.waterspoutdogogounaidi
3.ebb tideenor
4.flood (high) tideenengab
7.Pleiadeseyawid
8.Antaresramwinimada
10.Orion's Beltiyiy
25.chickendomo
27.turtleebake
28.whaledogua
30.flying fishemor
31.hibiscus (wild)ekwane
32.bambooebarabaratu
34.pandanusepo
35.coconut treeini
36.coconut (general term, or mature nut)anikiwi
37.coconut for drinkingini
38.toddy (coconut palm)ekarawe
41.breadfruit (esp. tree)deme
47.arrowrootdomagamag
66.outrigger canoe, canoeekwo
67.outrigger floategam
70.canoe mastdeneang
71.sail (mat)dobatsi
73.paddle (canoe)eod
76.arrowmwit dobanara
78.slingtsiwa
80.hook (trolling)eoe n tsibab
81.hook (shark)eoe n bawo
83.seine, netearu
84.kiteedawidawo
85.rat trapukwe kumododo
88.adz bladetubwit eta
89.sennitemane, anakeba
90.oven (earth)eom
91.pounder (food)etewiw
92.coconut graterikiwi
93.digging stickdebugibug
95.basketebwar
96.bowl (wooden)domaugu
100.fanetongengit
103.eyeshadebongeet eme
104.earringeretsiyiung
106.necklaceemwar
111.sleeping houseewag
112.men's housean wag eman
114.cooking houseewag in tsitsin
115.storehouse (food)ewag in yeyi
116.canoe houseininekwo
117.dance groundetang in ruwo
122.conch trumpetdobu
126.top (spinning)egapae
127.string figureekawada

Section 5. Kinship Terms

1.father (his)etongin
2.mother (his)inon
3.son (his)ngain
4.sister's sonngain idit en
5.brother's sonngain idit eman
6.daughterngait en
7.sister's daughterngain idit en
8.brother's daughterngain idit eman
9.brotheridin
12.sisteridit en
26.cousinearat edin
36.in-lawiyiben