Document kanji

The numbers 1, 2, 3, and 10, 20, 30 have more complex forms,
used, for example, on legal documents, for financial transactions, etc.,
which cannot be as easily modified as the standard forms:

 
# usual
kanji
document
kanji
reading kana
1 ichi いち, いっ
2 弐 貳 貮ni
3 参 參san
(mairu)
さん
10
(hirou)
じゅう
20 二十廿nijū
にじゅう
30 三十三拾 卅sanjū
さんじゅう

A section of the printing history page of the 1955 (Shōwa 30) printing of Takehara's 1941 "A Standard Japanese-English Dictionary (Abridged Edition)." showing 壱 (1), 弐 (2),参, (3) and 拾 (10).

A section of the copyright page of the 1906 printing of Brinkley's 1896 (Meiji 29) "An Unabridged Japanese-English Dictionary" showing 廿 (20) and 卅 (30).

 

Japanese Eras and Gregorian Years

EraStart DateEnd DateConversion to
Gregorian year
明治
Meiji
September 8, 1868July 30, 1912Meiji + 1867
大正
Taishō
July 30, 1912December 25, 1926Taishō + 1911
昭和
Shōwa
December 25, 1926January 7, 1989Shōwa + 1925
平成
Heisei
January 7, 1989PresentHeisei + 1988

Nihongo